The history of dental implants
Over the years, Implantology evolved so much that it now offers patients needing to replace teeth increasingly effective and comfortable solutions. In the last decades, new materials have been introduced and procedures such as ALL-ON-4 have seen the day, which in a simple and painless way replace missing teeth with the greatest ease. Biomaterials fully compatible with the human body were discovered and titanium, the main material used in the manufacture of dental implants, has revolutionised the world of dentistry.
Dental implants have been used for centuries in an attempt to replace the natural teeth. But most people are unaware that since thousands of years ago different peoples have been trying to find materials and solutions that are effective in replacing the dental pieces that are missing.
The importance of osseo-integration
In 1952 Branemark discovered the process that has revolutionized the techniques of implantology. This process is called “osseo-integration” and consists in the passage of the maxillary or mandible bone cells to the surface of the titanium implant. This passage is called “osseo-integration”. The implant is strongly anchored in the bone and supports the modern dental crowns and the prostheses fixed on implants. CAD/CAM techniques were joined to this discovery to produce the crowns of zirconium or porcelain-fused-to-metal.
The ALL-ON-4 technique allows persons without teeth, fully edentulous and with severe jaw atrophy, i.e., with major bone loss, to be rehabilitated with 4 implants without resorting to bone grafts techniques. The procedure consists in inserting two implants tilted at about a 30 degrees angle in the posterior area where there is such a lack of bone and two implants in the anterior area. This procedure allows screwing hybrid fixed prostheses (made of acrylic, the so called “dentures”) or ordinary ceramic crowns or a bridge.
Fixed single or multiple implant
As its name suggests, it is possible to insert a single implant in the missing tooth area. After osseo-integration, a dental crown is then screwed into or cemented on that implant. With this procedure, the absence of a dental piece is corrected. Moreover, it is possible to address the problem of lack of two, three or more teeth with the insertion of two, three or more implants. Bridges and pontics resting on the gum are used in conjunction with dental implants.
This technique is used when there is no other alternative to solve the problem of lack of bone in the upper jaw. Radiographic imaging such as CT is used to provide three-dimensional images. Only the dentist can advise on the insertion of zygomatic implants, which is performed under general anaesthesia and in the hospital. The prosthetic part of the oral rehabilitation is planned. The technique consists essentially in the introduction of two implants in the upper jaw. These implants are slightly longer than the usual ones and are fixed in the zygomatic bone of the cheeks.